hormone)- Hormone produced by the pituitary gland. It stimulates
adrenal glands to secrete the hormones they produce, including cortisone
hormone) deficiency- Too little ACTH produced by the pituitary
gland; Symptoms include weakness, fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances.
Outer layer of the adrenal gland. Secretes various hormones including
cortisone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, androgen, aldosterone
Lack of development of something. For example, agenesis of a toe
means that toe failed to form
Visual impairment caused by abnormal eye shape.
Impaired development in social interaction, communication and behavior.
a term describing a condition that affects both sides of the body
or two paired organs, such as bilateral deafness
(deafness in both ears)
and other vision problems- The absence of vision. It may occur
singly or in conjunction with other disabling handicaps. 20/200
or worse in the better eye is the legal limit of blindness. Ophthalmologists
are required by law to report newly diagnosed blind individuals
to an appropriate state agency. Causes include retrolental fibroplasia,
congenital cataracts, congenital glaucoma, disorders of the retina
or the optic nerve, acquired eye disease, accidents, or diseases
affecting the whole body, including cancer. A precise diagnosis
must be established by a competent eye specialist (ophthalmologist),
who also will monitor treatment for treatable causes. Most of the
treatment for a blind child is educational and takes place at home
and at school and involves parents and teachers. The goal in treatment
is to make it possible for the sight-impaired child to learn to
become as independent as possible. Many aids (tapes, computers,
books in braille, etc.) exist other than personal ones to help bring
about self-sufficiency and self-confidence.
palsy- a group of disorders of movement and posture resulting
from damage to the brain early in a child's development; causes
muscle weakness, difficulty coordinating voluntary movements, and
sometimes complete loss of motion
A fissure in the upper lip due to failure of fusion of the lip.
(The lip should normally fuse by 35 days of uterine age). Cleft
lip can be on one side only (unilateral) or on both sides (bilateral).
Since failure of lip fusion can impair the subsequent closure of
the palatal shelves, cleft lip often occurs in association with
An opening in the roof of the mouth, due to a failure of the palatal
shelves to come fully together from either side of the mouth and
fuse during embryonic development. The opening in the palate permits
communication between the nasal passages and the mouth. Surgery
is needed to close the palate. Cleft palate can occur alone without
cleft lip or in association with cleft lip.
Ability- Intellectual ability; thinking and reasoning skills.
the slab of white nerve fibers that connects these two cerebral
hemispheres and transfers important information from one to the
Delays- see: http://www.thecnr.com/dvlpd.htm
for a full explaination.(NOTE:This page is a site that promotes
their program it is not endorsed by this administrator, it was the
fullest description of DD we could find)
insipidus- Disorder of the hormone system caused by a deficiency
of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) normally secreted by the pituitary
gland. Characterized by passage of large amounts of diluted, colorless
urine (up to 15 quarts a day), unquenchable thirst, dry skin and
The application of law to ensure that an individual's rights are
protected. When applied to children with learning disabilities,
due process means that parents have the right to request a full
review of any educational program developed for their child. A due
process hearing may be requested to ensure that all requirements
of Public Law 94-142 have been met.
Abnormal in form. From the Greek dys- (bad, disordered, abnormal)
and plassein (to form). For example, retinal dysplasia is abnormal
formation of the retina during embryonic development
Program- A program specially designed to assist developmentally
delayed infants and preschool children. The purpose of this type
of program is to help prevent problems as the child matures.
The study of the medical aspects of hormones and their associated
diseases and conditions. (An endocrinologist is a doctor that specializes
in the management of hormone conditions
disorders- Any disorder involving the endocrine system. The
endocrine system is made up of organs that secrete hormones into
the blood to regulate basic functions of cells and tissues. Endocrine
organs are pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas,
ovaries (in women) and testicles (in men).
gland- a gland that secretes hormones into the bloodstream
Conditions in children that result in underdevelopment or overdevelopment
of the body. Diseases of the endocrine glands, nutritional problems,
or genetic abnormalities are frequently the causes.
and Rocking- A common, usually harmless, habit. The child hits
his head against a solid object in a rhythmical way. Head banging
first appears between 6 and 12 months of age and disappears before
3 years. This habit is 3 times more common in boys than girls and
occurs in 5-10(enb) of all children. This habit is closely associated
with rocking, also a harmless habit. The cause of either banging
or rocking is unknown. Head banging may also be a part of the symptoms
of children with other disorders, including autism, mental retardation,
blindness, and hearing loss. If rhythmical behavior begins after
18 months, consult your physician.
Aldosterone- Hormone produced by the outer portion (cortex)
of the adrenal gland that regulates the balance of water and electrolytes
(ions such as potassium and sodium) in the body. Aldosterone encourages
the kidney to excrete potassium into the urine and to retain sodium,
thereby retaining water. Aldosterone is classified as a mineralocorticoid
Cortisol- The primary stress hormone. Cortisol is the major
natural glucocorticoid in humans.
Chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates
the activity of certain cells or organs. A hormone originally denoted
a chemical made by a special gland for export to another part of
the body. Now a hormone is more broadly any chemical, irrespective
of whether it is produced by a special gland or not, for export
or domestic use, that "controls and regulates the activity
of certain cells or organs.". The word "hormao" which
means "I set in motion" or "I stir up" was used
in ancient Greece to covey the "vital principle" of "getting
the juices flowing." The word "hormone" was resurrected
in 1902 (not 1906, as the Oxford English Dictionary states) by the
English physiologists Wm. M. Bayliss and Ernest H. Starling who
that year reported their discovery of a substance made by glands
in the small intestine that stimulated pancreatic secretion. They
called the substance "secretin" and dubbed it a "hormone",
the first known hormone.
Therapy- the use of natural or artificial hormones to treat
Thyroid- Chemical substance made by the thyroid gland which
is located in the front of the neck. The thyroid gland uses iodine
to make thyroid hormones. The two most important thyroid hormones
are thyroxine (T4) and riiodothyronine (T3).
Increased tone of skeletal muscles. Basically, too tight muscles.
Prefix meaning low, under, beneath, down, below normal. For example,
Low level of the sugar glucose in the blood.
Underactivity of the pituitary gland, resulting in inadequate hormone
Underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ.For
example, there can be hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the enamel
of the teeth. Hypoplasia is less drastic than aplasia where there
is no development at all.
The area of the brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and
thirst.A part of the diencephalon that maintains proper levels of
body fluids, heart rate, and other functions critical to survival.
The things regulated by the hypothalamus are subject to disruption
by emotional responses to certain stimuli, so the hypothalamus can
help us stabilize under duress.
Abnormally low body temperature. Someone who falls asleep in a snowbank
may become hypothermic. Hypothermia is intentionally produced to
slow the metabolism during some types of surgery.
Deficiency of thyroid hormone.
Decreased tone of skeletal muscles. In a word, floppiness.
The controversial practice--sometimes called "full inclusion"--of
educating children with disabilities alongside their non- disabled
peers, often in a regular classroom in their neighborhood school.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requires that disabled
children be educated in the "least restrictive environment"
Education Plan (IEP)- A written educational prescription developed
for each handicapped (including learning disabled) child. Sometimes
called an Individualized Education Program. School districts are
required by law to develop these plans, in cooperation with parents.
An IEP must contain:
- the child's
present levels of educational performance
- annual and
short-term educational goals
- the specific
special education program and related services that will be provided
to the child
- the extent
to which the child will participate in regular education program
with non-handicapped children
- a statement
of when services will begin and how long they will last
for evaluating the effectiveness of the program and the student's
performance. This evaluation must occur at least once a year
of transition services for students 14 years of age or older.
Teacher - Special Education teacher who is shared by more than
Condition of yellow skin, yellow whites of the eyes, dark urine
and light-colored stools. It is a symptom of diseases of the liver
and blood caused by abnormally elevated amounts of bilirubin in
A brain system managing physiological responses to emotions and
is associated with behavior. It includes the thalamus, hypothalamus,
amygdala, and parts of the reticular formation, brainstem and cerebral
The practice of placing handicapped children with special educational
needs into regular classrooms for at least a part of the children's
resonance imaging (MRI)- a technique that uses magnetic fields
and radio waves to create high-quality cross-sectional images of
the body without using radiation
A penis that is abnormally small is referred to as a micropenis
True micropenis reflects failure of normal hormonal stimulation
or a failure of normal development (a birth defect).
medical doctor who assesses for potential damage to the brain
and may provide medication to assist in enhancing brain function.
persistent, rapid, involuntary movement of the eyes
compulsive disorder- a mild emotional disorder in which a person
is obsessed with certain thoughts, leading them to repeatedly perform
specific acts; for example, constantly washing the hands out of
fear of germs and dirt
Therapist (O.T.)- treats for restoration or improvement of impaired
motor or sensory functions in order to improve ability to perform
tasks for independent living.
hypoplasia- is a visual disorder that affects the optic nerve,
the bundle of fibers that transmits signals from the retina to the
brain. In optic nerve hypoplasia, the nerve has not developed. This
may mean that the child may have some vision or may be blind, depending
on how much of the optic nerve is intact.
Complex syndrome marked by deficiency of hormones secreted by the
pituitary gland. It is very rare. Most often caused by a tumor of
the pituitary gland. In children, it results in dwarfism and is
characterized by dysfunction of metabolism, sexual immaturity and
provides medical services to infants, children, and adolescents;
trained in overall growth and development of these individuals and
their motor, sensory, and behavioral development.
gland- Often referred to as the "master endocrine organ",
the pituitary gland lies beneath the hypothalamus within a bony
labyrinth. The pituitary gland releases many different hormones,
such as: thyroid-stimulating hormone, ACTH, growth hormone, gonadotropin,
prolactin, vasopressin, and oxytocin into the circulatory system.
Electrolyte present in all body cells, blood, and body fluids.
Potassium is important in maintaining normal heart contractions
and the strength and contractions of all muscles. Foods high in
potassium include dried apricots and peaches, whole-grain cereals,
plain cocoa, dried lentils and peas, bananas, and molasses.
puberty- Changes of adolescence that occur sooner than expected
in young girls or boys.
Program- A program model in which a student is in a regular
classroom for most of each day, but also receives regularly scheduled
individual services in a specialized resource classroom.
A seizure is a sudden attack of epileptic convulsion. It is a result
of involuntary electrical activity in the brain. It can be associated
with uncontrolled motor (movement) or sensory system action. Accordingly,
a patient suffering a seizure may experience uncontrollable body
movements, unusual smells or tastes and have loss of consciousness
(awareness of surroundings).
for full explaination
The septum pellucidum is the structure which lies at the medial
wall of the lateral ventricle, and functions to physically separate
the lateral ventricle from the third ventricle.
a mineral that plays a role in the body's water balance, heart rhythm,
nerve impulses, and muscle contraction; present in table salt (sodium
Language Specialist- identifies and provides services for children
with articulation problems, as well as expressive and/or reception
a condition in which the eyes are not aligned correctly, such as
cross-eye (one eye points inward) and walleye (one eye points outward)
a gland located in the front of the neck below the voice box
that plays an important role in metabolism (the chemical processes
in the body) and growth, the gland produces thyroid hormone
hormone)- Chemical substance secreted by the pituitary gland;
controls the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland.
TSH is needed for normal thyroid growth and function.
Hormone made by the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland.
Effects include contraction of the muscular layer of small blood
vessels, contraction of the smooth muscles of the intestinal tract
and stimulation of contraction of the uterus. Also called anti-diuretic
hormone. Has specific effect on kidney tubules stimulating resorption
of water, causing a concentration of the urine.
Clarity with which objects are seen.