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  Download Dr. Mary's handout in PDF format from the conference on the different hormone that affect our children.  
 *  Vision Loss and Autism : Comparisons  in PDF Format. Thank you to Marilyn and Jay Gense for letting us post this at our sight! and to Michelle for finding it for us!!
 * ONH Booklet in PDF Format
 * You can view Dr. Mehul Dattani presentation as a web page, or as  Power Point .
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Hi I'm Cheryl ! Find out more about me and ONH/SOD by clicking on my picture.

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)- Hormone produced by the pituitary gland. It stimulates adrenal glands to secrete the hormones they produce, including cortisone and cortisol.

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) deficiency- Too little ACTH produced by the pituitary gland; Symptoms include weakness, fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances.

Adrenal cortex- Outer layer of the adrenal gland. Secretes various hormones including cortisone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, androgen, aldosterone and progesterone.

Agenesis- Lack of development of something. For example, agenesis of a toe means that toe failed to form

Astignatism- Visual impairment caused by abnormal eye shape.

Autism- Impaired development in social interaction, communication and behavior.


Bilateral- a term describing a condition that affects both sides of the body or two paired organs, such as bilateral deafness
(deafness in both ears)

Blindness and other vision problems- The absence of vision. It may occur singly or in conjunction with other disabling handicaps. 20/200 or worse in the better eye is the legal limit of blindness. Ophthalmologists are required by law to report newly diagnosed blind individuals to an appropriate state agency. Causes include retrolental fibroplasia, congenital cataracts, congenital glaucoma, disorders of the retina or the optic nerve, acquired eye disease, accidents, or diseases affecting the whole body, including cancer. A precise diagnosis must be established by a competent eye specialist (ophthalmologist), who also will monitor treatment for treatable causes. Most of the treatment for a blind child is educational and takes place at home and at school and involves parents and teachers. The goal in treatment is to make it possible for the sight-impaired child to learn to become as independent as possible. Many aids (tapes, computers, books in braille, etc.) exist other than personal ones to help bring about self-sufficiency and self-confidence.


Cerebral palsy- a group of disorders of movement and posture resulting from damage to the brain early in a child's development; causes muscle weakness, difficulty coordinating voluntary movements, and sometimes complete loss of motion

Cleft lip- A fissure in the upper lip due to failure of fusion of the lip. (The lip should normally fuse by 35 days of uterine age). Cleft lip can be on one side only (unilateral) or on both sides (bilateral). Since failure of lip fusion can impair the subsequent closure of the palatal shelves, cleft lip often occurs in association with cleft palate.

Cleft palate- An opening in the roof of the mouth, due to a failure of the palatal shelves to come fully together from either side of the mouth and fuse during embryonic development. The opening in the palate permits communication between the nasal passages and the mouth. Surgery is needed to close the palate. Cleft palate can occur alone without cleft lip or in association with cleft lip.

Cognitive Ability- Intellectual ability; thinking and reasoning skills.

Corpus Callosum- the slab of white nerve fibers that connects these two cerebral hemispheres and transfers important information from one to the other.


Developmental Delays- see: http://www.thecnr.com/dvlpd.htm for a full explaination.(NOTE:This page is a site that promotes their program it is not endorsed by this administrator, it was the fullest description of DD we could find)

Diabetes insipidus- Disorder of the hormone system caused by a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) normally secreted by the pituitary gland. Characterized by passage of large amounts of diluted, colorless urine (up to 15 quarts a day), unquenchable thirst, dry skin and constipation.

Due Process- The application of law to ensure that an individual's rights are protected. When applied to children with learning disabilities, due process means that parents have the right to request a full review of any educational program developed for their child. A due process hearing may be requested to ensure that all requirements of Public Law 94-142 have been met.

Dysplasia- Abnormal in form. From the Greek dys- (bad, disordered, abnormal) and plassein (to form). For example, retinal dysplasia is abnormal formation of the retina during embryonic development


Early Intervention Program- A program specially designed to assist developmentally delayed infants and preschool children. The purpose of this type of program is to help prevent problems as the child matures.

Endocrinology- The study of the medical aspects of hormones and their associated diseases and conditions. (An endocrinologist is a doctor that specializes in the management of hormone conditions

Endocrine disorders- Any disorder involving the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made up of organs that secrete hormones into the blood to regulate basic functions of cells and tissues. Endocrine organs are pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries (in women) and testicles (in men).

Endocrine gland- a gland that secretes hormones into the bloodstream


Growth Disorders- Conditions in children that result in underdevelopment or overdevelopment of the body. Diseases of the endocrine glands, nutritional problems, or genetic abnormalities are frequently the causes.


Head Banging and Rocking- A common, usually harmless, habit. The child hits his head against a solid object in a rhythmical way. Head banging first appears between 6 and 12 months of age and disappears before 3 years. This habit is 3 times more common in boys than girls and occurs in 5-10(enb) of all children. This habit is closely associated with rocking, also a harmless habit. The cause of either banging or rocking is unknown. Head banging may also be a part of the symptoms of children with other disorders, including autism, mental retardation, blindness, and hearing loss. If rhythmical behavior begins after 18 months, consult your physician.

Hormone, Aldosterone- Hormone produced by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal gland that regulates the balance of water and electrolytes (ions such as potassium and sodium) in the body. Aldosterone encourages the kidney to excrete potassium into the urine and to retain sodium, thereby retaining water. Aldosterone is classified as a mineralocorticoid hormone.

Hormone, Cortisol- The primary stress hormone. Cortisol is the major natural glucocorticoid in humans.

Hormone- Chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs. A hormone originally denoted a chemical made by a special gland for export to another part of the body. Now a hormone is more broadly any chemical, irrespective of whether it is produced by a special gland or not, for export or domestic use, that "controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs.". The word "hormao" which means "I set in motion" or "I stir up" was used in ancient Greece to covey the "vital principle" of "getting the juices flowing." The word "hormone" was resurrected in 1902 (not 1906, as the Oxford English Dictionary states) by the English physiologists Wm. M. Bayliss and Ernest H. Starling who that year reported their discovery of a substance made by glands in the small intestine that stimulated pancreatic secretion. They called the substance "secretin" and dubbed it a "hormone", the first known hormone.

Hormone Replacement Therapy- the use of natural or artificial hormones to treat hormone deficiencies

Hormone, Thyroid- Chemical substance made by the thyroid gland which is located in the front of the neck. The thyroid gland uses iodine to make thyroid hormones. The two most important thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4) and riiodothyronine (T3).

Hypertonia- Increased tone of skeletal muscles. Basically, too tight muscles.

Hypo- Prefix meaning low, under, beneath, down, below normal. For example,

Hypoglycemia- Low level of the sugar glucose in the blood.

Hypopituitarism- Underactivity of the pituitary gland, resulting in inadequate hormone production.

Hypoplasia- Underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ.For example, there can be hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the enamel of the teeth. Hypoplasia is less drastic than aplasia where there is no development at all.

Hypothalamus- The area of the brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst.A part of the diencephalon that maintains proper levels of body fluids, heart rate, and other functions critical to survival. The things regulated by the hypothalamus are subject to disruption by emotional responses to certain stimuli, so the hypothalamus can help us stabilize under duress.

Hypothermia- Abnormally low body temperature. Someone who falls asleep in a snowbank may become hypothermic. Hypothermia is intentionally produced to slow the metabolism during some types of surgery.

Hypothyroid- Deficiency of thyroid hormone.

Hypotonia- Decreased tone of skeletal muscles. In a word, floppiness.


Inclusion- The controversial practice--sometimes called "full inclusion"--of educating children with disabilities alongside their non- disabled peers, often in a regular classroom in their neighborhood school. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requires that disabled children be educated in the "least restrictive environment" possible.

Individualized Education Plan (IEP)- A written educational prescription developed for each handicapped (including learning disabled) child. Sometimes called an Individualized Education Program. School districts are required by law to develop these plans, in cooperation with parents.
An IEP must contain:

  • the child's present levels of educational performance
  • annual and short-term educational goals
  • the specific special education program and related services that will be provided to the child
  • the extent to which the child will participate in regular education program with non-handicapped children
  • a statement of when services will begin and how long they will last
  • provisions for evaluating the effectiveness of the program and the student's performance. This evaluation must occur at least once a year
  • statement of transition services for students 14 years of age or older.

Itinerant Teacher - Special Education teacher who is shared by more than one school.


Jaundice- Condition of yellow skin, yellow whites of the eyes, dark urine and light-colored stools. It is a symptom of diseases of the liver and blood caused by abnormally elevated amounts of bilirubin in the blood.


Limbic system- A brain system managing physiological responses to emotions and is associated with behavior. It includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and parts of the reticular formation, brainstem and cerebral cortex.


Mainstreaming- The practice of placing handicapped children with special educational needs into regular classrooms for at least a part of the children's school programs.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create high-quality cross-sectional images of the body without using radiation

Micropenis- A penis that is abnormally small is referred to as a micropenis True micropenis reflects failure of normal hormonal stimulation or a failure of normal development (a birth defect).


Neurologist- medical doctor who assesses for potential damage to the brain and may provide medication to assist in enhancing brain function.

Nystagmus- persistent, rapid, involuntary movement of the eyes


Obsessive- compulsive disorder- a mild emotional disorder in which a person is obsessed with certain thoughts, leading them to repeatedly perform specific acts; for example, constantly washing the hands out of fear of germs and dirt

Occupational Therapist (O.T.)- treats for restoration or improvement of impaired motor or sensory functions in order to improve ability to perform tasks for independent living.

Optic nerve hypoplasia- is a visual disorder that affects the optic nerve, the bundle of fibers that transmits signals from the retina to the brain. In optic nerve hypoplasia, the nerve has not developed. This may mean that the child may have some vision or may be blind, depending on how much of the optic nerve is intact.


Panhypopituitarism- Complex syndrome marked by deficiency of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. It is very rare. Most often caused by a tumor of the pituitary gland. In children, it results in dwarfism and is characterized by dysfunction of metabolism, sexual immaturity and growth retardation.

Pediatrician- provides medical services to infants, children, and adolescents; trained in overall growth and development of these individuals and their motor, sensory, and behavioral development.

Pituitary gland- Often referred to as the "master endocrine organ", the pituitary gland lies beneath the hypothalamus within a bony labyrinth. The pituitary gland releases many different hormones, such as: thyroid-stimulating hormone, ACTH, growth hormone, gonadotropin, prolactin, vasopressin, and oxytocin into the circulatory system.

Potassium- Electrolyte present in all body cells, blood, and body fluids. Potassium is important in maintaining normal heart contractions and the strength and contractions of all muscles. Foods high in potassium include dried apricots and peaches, whole-grain cereals, plain cocoa, dried lentils and peas, bananas, and molasses.

Precocious puberty- Changes of adolescence that occur sooner than expected in young girls or boys.


Resource Program- A program model in which a student is in a regular classroom for most of each day, but also receives regularly scheduled individual services in a specialized resource classroom.


Seizure- A seizure is a sudden attack of epileptic convulsion. It is a result of involuntary electrical activity in the brain. It can be associated with uncontrolled motor (movement) or sensory system action. Accordingly, a patient suffering a seizure may experience uncontrollable body movements, unusual smells or tastes and have loss of consciousness (awareness of surroundings).

Sensory Intergration Disorder- see:http:/home.earthlink.net/~sensoryint/faq.html for full explaination

Septum pellucidum- The septum pellucidum is the structure which lies at the medial wall of the lateral ventricle, and functions to physically separate the lateral ventricle from the third ventricle.

Sodium- a mineral that plays a role in the body's water balance, heart rhythm, nerve impulses, and muscle contraction; present in table salt (sodium chloride)

Speech and Language Specialist- identifies and provides services for children with articulation problems, as well as expressive and/or reception language problems.

Strabismus- a condition in which the eyes are not aligned correctly, such as cross-eye (one eye points inward) and walleye (one eye points outward)


Thyroid gland- a gland located in the front of the neck below the voice box that plays an important role in metabolism (the chemical processes in the body) and growth, the gland produces thyroid hormone

TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)- Chemical substance secreted by the pituitary gland; controls the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland. TSH is needed for normal thyroid growth and function.


Vasopressin- Hormone made by the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland. Effects include contraction of the muscular layer of small blood vessels, contraction of the smooth muscles of the intestinal tract and stimulation of contraction of the uterus. Also called anti-diuretic hormone. Has specific effect on kidney tubules stimulating resorption of water, causing a concentration of the urine.

Visual Acuity- Clarity with which objects are seen.


This website has been designed to help empower parents of children with ONH/SOD. All the information herein is subject to opinion. If you suspect your child may have ONH/SOD it is recommended that you seek professional advice from a certified pediatric ophthalmologist. No one individual or company connected with this website assumes any liability or responsibility
for it's contents.

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